|Pollution: Car Dependency Poor People left behind April 2021||People living in ‘left behind’ neighbourhoods are disconnected from town and city centres because of poor public transport links, according to a new report.||Pollution|
|Pollution: Reversing Car Dependency : International Transport Forum Report Mar 2021||Cities need more efficient, less damaging and fairer use of scarce space. Managing the growth of urban traffic is vital for achieving that and improving the liveability of our cities. More globally, reducing traffic is essential for scaling back the environmental and social costs associated with private car use in order to meet sustainability objectives. However, the car will likely be irreplaceable for much travel between peripheral areas. The objective must not be to suppress travel by car, but channel it to locations and uses where its value to the individual clearly exceeds the costs it imposes on society, including other car users||Pollution|
|Pollution: Reallocation of Road Space Report Mar 2021||The report, which examines how governments can reduce car-dependency, explains that managing the growth of urban traffic is vital. The report highlights that car use between peripheral areas will likely be irreplaceable, therefore the objective should not be to suppress travel by car, but to channel it to locations and uses where its value to the individual exceeds the costs it imposes on society.||Pollution|
|Pollution: Transport Secretary deliberately causes more road Pollution: Feb 2021||Pollution: A £27bn expansion of England’s road network has been thrown into doubt after documents showed the transport secretary, Grant Shapps, overrode official advice to review the policy on environmental grounds, the Guardian revealed 11th Feb 2021 article||Pollution|
|Pollution: Air Quality pollution and the decline of cognitive skills||Greater exposure to air pollution is associated with a decline in cognitive skills in later life, according to researchers at the University of Edinburgh.||Pollution|
|Pollution; How air pollution is doing more than killing us BBC Future Jan 2021||Article supplied Courtesy of BBC Future https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20190415-how-air-pollution-is-doing-more-than-killing-us?ocid=ww.social.link.email||Pollution|
|Pollution: Covid - 19 Link 20 Dec 2020||The pandemic ends with the vaccination of the population or with herd immunity through extensive infection of the population. However, there are no vaccines against poor air quality and climate change! The remedy is to mitigate emissions. The transition to a green economy with clean, renewable energy sources will further both environmental and public health locally through improved air quality and globally by limiting climate change.||Pollution|
|Pollution: Coroner's Report confirmed Ella Issy-Debrah's death by Air Pollution||During the hearing, Holgate, who was a member of the royal commission for environmental pollution until it was closed in 2011, heavily criticised the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and the Department of Health and Social Care for failing to work together on toxic air. Ella’s family argued there was sufficient evidence to conclude there were failures by the state to take steps to protect the public from dangerous levels of air pollution, which amounted to a violation of article 2 of the Human Rights Act, concerning the right to life.||Pollution|
|Pollution: Air Pollution Exam results are lower: Dec 2020||Researchers found that peak air pollution exposure was associated with lower test scores and that schools which had higher levels of air pollution had a higher percentage of students who tested below average in Maths and English.||Pollution|
|Pollution: CBI Economics Report Sept 2020||By reducing mortality and diseases linked to poor Air Quality, almost 17,000 premature deaths every year and rising, preventing theses deaths and allowing the individuals to live longer, the UK could gain almost 40,000 productive years which is estimated to provide a £1 Billion gain in the first year and in subsequent years, plus as the individuals are prevented from early retiral due to ill health, the UK could also gain an additional three million working days by reducing morbidity associated with poor air quality||Pollution|
|Pollution: Poor air quality assists Corvid-19||All link between poor air quality and the fast spreading of Corvid- 19||Pollution|
|Pollution: 15% of Corvid 19 Deaths exposure Poor Air Quality Report 27 Oct 2020||The study, which was published today (October 27) in Cardiovascular Research has estimated that about 15% of worldwide deaths from Covid-19 could be attributed to long-term exposure to air pollution.||Pollution|
|Pollution: Environmental Bill - Environmental Targets||A vital document which is very supportive of Trams which are pollution free at the point of use This is a call for professional help (pro bono) from interested parties to put together a supportive document for the consultation period outline early 2022||Pollution|
|Pollution: Particulates and Diabetics Aug 2020||To test the impact that air pollution has on health, researchers from the University of Cardiovascular Research Institute created an environment that mimicked a polluted day in New Delhi or Beijing, by concentrating fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5). Using a mouse model study, the researchers observed the health impacts of three groups, a control group receiving clean filtered air, a group exposed to polluted air for 24 weeks and a group fed a high-fat diet. The researchers found that being exposed to air pollution was comparable to eating a high-fat diet. Both air pollution and the high-fat diet group showed insulin resistance and abnormal metabolism – just like you would see in a pre-diabetic state.||Pollution|
|Pollution: Particulates and Cardiovascular Disease Aug 2020||In the report, the researchers have said that repeated inhalation of these metallic nanoparticles may account for the well-established association between exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5) and increased cardiovascular disease. The researchers have also suggested that exposure to these particles may account for some of the increased death rates from Covid-19 seen in areas with high levels of particulate pollution Tram braking, metal and metal is such minute quantities to be almost non existent||Pollution|
|Pollution: Another report: Smart Cities June 2020||Air pollution kills thousands of people each year, and affects the health of many more. Although local data on the number of people whose health is affected by poor air quality is limited — what can be estimated are the deaths attributable to one pollutant, PM2.5, in cities across the UK. This one pollutant is estimated to have caused just over 14,400 deaths of those aged 25 or older in UK cities in 2017. Click on https://www.centreforcities.org/publication/cities-outlook-2020/ to be able to check how many days your area has been over the limit||Pollution|
|Pollution; PM2.5 particulates are killing our children Jul 2020||Are our particulate minimums safe/ Are they killing our young children? A report from EPA, Int J Toxical, 2002,21:403-18||Pollution|
|LR Applrg: BioMethane Gas, a personal blog: Beverley Nielsen||We’ll need more than hot air to get us out of this crisis – but the green gas, biomethane, could power part of the solution||Pollution|
|Pollution: How to build out of it: Foundation for Integrated Transport Report: June 2020||Garden Towns: VISIONS & REALITY: Garden Villages and which will we actually build? Garden village dream or tarmac estate?||Pollution|
|Pollution: Defra: Tyre & Micro Plastics in the Waterways 27 May 2020.||A major government-funded research study published today suggests particles released from vehicle tyres could be a significant and previously largely unrecorded source of micro plastics in the marine environment. Executive Summary and Final report posted below||Pollution|
|Pollution: Defra: Tyre & Micro Plastics in the Waterways Executive Summary 27 May 2020.||Executive Summary Investigating the sources and pathways of synthetic fibre and vehicle tyre wear contamination into the marine environment Studies that Tyre wear particles are a major direct source of micro plastics to the environment. It is important to note therefore that inadequate sampling of tyre particles in previous microplastic sampling is likely to have resulted in a considerable underestimate of the total microplastic burden that has accumulated in the environment. That is to say, tyre particles represent a substantial source of micro plastics that is in addition to previously reported quantities of micro plastics from other sources (fibres, fragmentation, micro beads from cosmetics).||Pollution|
|Pollution: Defra: Tyre & Micro Plastics in the Waterways Final report 27 May 2020.||Microplastics are small pieces of plastic debris (<5 mm) that have accumulated either because of the fragmentation of larger items of plastic in the environment or have entered the environment directly as particles of less than 5 mm. It is widely accepted that microplastic contamination is widespread and increasing. Recent reports indicate that associated negative consequences could become widespread within the next 50 – 100 years unless current rates of contamination are reduced.||Pollution|
|Pollution: Harvard Report links Corvid 19 with Air Pollution.8 April 2020||For weeks, public health officials have surmised a link between dirty air and death or serious illness from Covid-19, which is caused by the coronavirus. The Harvard analysis is the first nationwide study to show a statistical link, revealing a “large overlap” between Covid-19 deaths and other diseases associated with long-term exposure to fine particulate matter.||Pollution|
|Pollution; Rubber Tyre Vacuum||1, Students at Imperial College London have invented a device that attaches close to the wheels of a car and is claimed to collect up to 60% of airborne tyre particles before they enter the atmosphere.2, The researchers from the European Society of Cardiology have estimated that globally, air pollution causes an extra 8.8 million premature deaths each year||Pollution|
|Pollution: Mr Gove's Letter||A reminder to Government of Mr Gove's Statement replying to the Defra Non Emissions Exhaust Report July 2019||Pollution|
|Pollution: British Heart Foundation Edinburgh Report: Jan 2020||These are the findings of a British Heart Foundation (BHF) study which warns that unless laws are introduced to limit current air pollution levels, then their current estimated figure of 11,000 deaths a year will increase significantly.||Pollution|
|Pollution: Defra Non Exhaust Emissions Report July 2019||Replacement copy||Pollution|
|Pollution; Next Government must change in new Parliament: Air Quality NewsNov 2019||Many noble words on air pollution have been uttered by government ministers in recent months – but funding for measures to tackle the problem rarely appear to stack up. With a new government, this must change, writes Penny Hosie.||Pollution|
|Pollution: Kings College Report 26th November 2019||It is now well established that air pollution constitutes a significant public health problem in the UK, in Europe and in many other countries across the globe. However, summary statements on air pollution and health are typically on a whole population basis and on rarer but more severe endpoints such as mortality. While important for overall public health terms, it may be harder for the public to identify with these summary statements, compared with summary statements based on specific susceptible groups and/or more commonly observed health outcomes. Breathing polluted air can affect your physical wellbeing at every stage of life, from the womb to old age, and can lead to a lifetime of symptoms of ill health in some people. Yet, most people are unaware of the full effects of polluted air on their health and that of their family. Living near a busy road increases lung cancer risk by 10% and living near a busy road increases a person's chance of developing lung cancer by up to 10% and stunts the growth of children's lungs by up to 14%.||Pollution|
|Pollution: WPL Nottingham Success October 2019||Mr Powell is also lucky; his employer, law firm Rothera Sharp, pays his fee “As a firm we are all in favour of the levy,” said the solicitor, who gets one of the company’s prized 15 parking spaces because of his hectic schedule. “All the revenue is going to local transport infrastructure.”||Pollution|
|Environmental Bill 2020 WHO levels 16th July 2019||Environment Secretary Michael Gove has said the upcoming Environment Bill will enshrine World Health Organisation (WHO) limits for particulate matter in UK law.||Pollution|
|Pollution: New Study life expectancy reduced by two years||Trams would cut premature death rate from air pollution. TramForward notes the publication of research which has used new data to estimate that nearly 800,000 people die prematurely each year in Europe because of air pollution, and that life expectancy is reduced by an average of more than two years. This number is double previous estimates.||Pollution|
|Pollution; Children Vulnerable: WHO Study Oct 2018||The WHO study found that children are particularly vulnerable to air pollution because pollutants are often more concentrated nearer to ground level. It added that their developing organs and nervous system are also more susceptible to long-term damage than those of adults. “Air pollution is stunting our children’s brains, affecting their health in more ways than we suspected,” said Dr Maria Neira, WHO director of public health and the environment. The study found that 600,000 children die from acute lower respiratory infections caused by dirty air and 93% are exposed to one of the most damaging pollutants – PM2.5. In poorer countries, 98% of all children under five are exposed to PM2.5 above WHO guidelines.||Pollution|
|Pollution: Government POSTnote Feb 2014||National and European regulations have improved UK ambient air quality. However, current air pollution levels continue to harm human health and the environment. This POSTnote summarises the evidence for effects POSTnote 458 February 2014 Why has it taken so long to have the Defra Consultation - 4.5 years when most of the data is already known and published by HM Government????||Pollution|
|Pollution: Defra Oslo Effect Consultation closes 28 Sept 2018 posted August 2018||Your response is important, Trams in all its forms are significant in the fight for air quality as there is no pollution at the point of use with the highest modal switch to this form of public transport and has been one of our core aims for the last 25 years +. Defra, "We are seeking to build our evidence base to inform the development of policies to reduce particulate matter emissions from brake, tyre and road surface wear by road traffic. This Call for Evidence is aimed at stakeholders such as industry bodies, companies, environmental groups, consumer groups, academics and others who may have evidence in the specific areas we are considering. We are interested in all relevant evidence but respondents do not need to address every question if their evidence and/or expertise is relevant to only certain questions."||Pollution|
|Pollution; A Mothers cry for Justice;August 2018||"My beloved daughter Ella died in February 2013 - aged just nine years old. At the time we were told she died because of her asthma. But new evidence has come out linking her death to illegal levels of air pollution - so I’m calling for a new inquest into her death."||Pollution|
|Pollution: House of Commons: Improving Air Quality Evidence 23 November 2017||Environmental Audit Committee, Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Committee, Health Committee, Transport Committee Oral evidence: Improving Air Quality, HC 433 Thursday 23 November 2017 Ordered by the House of Commons to be published on 23 November 2017.||Pollution|
|Pollution: Real Cost of Road Pollution Sept 2017||Air pollution doesn't just look and smell bad. It kills. And it costs megabucks. We all know that high blood pressure, smoking, high blood sugar, and cholesterol are big risk factors for premature death. But air pollution is right behind them — it's killer number five.||Pollution|
|Pollution: How dangerous is road rubber? Sept 2017||A busy road with 25,000 vehicles travelling on it each day will generate around nine kilograms of tyre dust per kilometre.||Pollution|
|LR A Commuter pollution study: CARB USA August 2017||Light rail commutes had the lowest average exposure per mile for all measured pollutants, and car trips experienced marginally higher per mile exposure, whereas train commutes with older diesel technologies experienced the largest exposure per mile of all of the motorized transportation commute modes. The study also offers advice for reducing exposure to air pollution during commute trips:||Pollution|
|Pollution : TramForward is disappointed with Government 2 Aug 2017||TramForward is disappointed with the recently announced Government air quality policy as it deals only with the reduction of nitrogen dioxide pollution from vehicle exhausts. Nitrogen dioxide is only part of the problem, particulate matter is also extremely damaging to health. While the proposed measures may well cut down particulate as well as nitrogen dioxide emissions, they will do nothing to tackle the other major source of particulate pollution, which is wear of tyres, brake linings and road surfaces. This has been dubbed the “Oslo effect” after the city where the problem was first identified.||Pollution|
|Pollution:Air Quality at the Heart of Election Press Release All Party Parliamentary Light Rail Group April 2017||“The quality of our air should be a political priority as it has a huge impact on the health of the nation. That is why we are calling on every party to have in their manifesto, a commitment to improving air quality. That is even more important now that we are going to see the Government’s defeat in Court before the election. They will have to defend their policy and parties can have a genuine debate about how to tackle such a large public health issue.”||Pollution|
|Pollution: Client Earth Judgement 27 April 2017||The UK Government has failed in its attempt to delay publication of its air quality plans until after the General Election. Mr Justice Garnham today ordered the government to produce the plans after the local elections on 9th May. The final plans must be produced by 31 July.||Pollution|
|Pollution:Trams, the Urban Air Quality Solution||Light Rail systems offer an attractive and effective system, reducing congestion and pollution by offering motorists an alternative to car use, Manchester Metrolink registered a modal switch approaching 32%, helping to create pollution-free zones in cities (clear zones).||Pollution|
|Pollution:Four Select Committees call for Air Quality Evidence||MP’s from four select committees have combined forces to launch an unprecedented joint inquiry on air quality to scrutinise cross-government plans to tackle urban pollution hotspots. The Environmental Audit Committee, Environment Food and Rural Affairs, Health, and Transport Committees will hold four evidence sessions to consider mounting scientific evidence on the health and environmental impacts of outdoor air pollution.||Pollution|
|Pollution: LRTA warns of Pollution dangers||The Light Rail Transit Association notes the recent EU final warning and threat of heavy fines against five countries, including the UK, on air quality breaches. 1 This concerns Nitrogen dioxide emissions, which is largely from vehicle exhausts. However, a worrying source of equally harmful PM10 and PM2.5 pollutants has recently been identified. It has generally been assumed that most vehicle pollution comes from the tail pipe and by cleaning up engines or moving to electric vehicles that can be cut. 2 Research has shown that up to 90% of harmful PM2.5 and 85% of PM10A pollution come from non-exhaust sources such as tyre wear, road surface wear, and the brakes. This is known as the Oslo effect after the city where it was first noted 3. Unfortunately, electric vehicles can be up to 40% heavier so even more of these harmful particles are emitted from the tyres.||Pollution|
|Pollution: Oslo Effect 2 2017||Oslo Effect 2 How air pollution harms your health, (An update to the original Oslo Effect report of 1988)||Pollution|
|Pollution:Dementia risk in Transport Corridors Jan 2017||a new study tracking 6.6 million people estimates effect on one in 10 cases of Alzheimer’s while those living by busy roads are 12% more likely to be diagnosed with dementia Living near busy traffic may increase the likelihood of dementia, according to a new study||Pollution|
For public transport to become a force in dealing with urban congestion, carbon reduction, improving air quality and to be an attractive alternative to the car, it must be built quickly and operate affordably.
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