|Air Pollution European Agency||Air pollution is a major cause of premature death and disease and is the single largest environmental health risk in Europe. Heart disease and stroke are the most common reasons for premature deaths attributable to air pollution, followed by lung diseases and lung cancer. This EEA briefing estimates the potential health benefits of attaining the EU air quality standards and the WHO guideline values for fine particulate matter in ambient air. It also assesses progress towards the health-related objective of the EU’s Zero Pollution Action Plan. Finally, it presents the latest estimates of the health impacts of exposure to the following key air pollutants: fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and ozone.||Air Quality|
|Air Pollution Nov 2021||Had the new WHO air quality guideline for PM2.5 of 5 µg/m3 been attained across the EU-27 in 2019, then this would have delivered a reduction in premature deaths of at least 72% compared with 2005 levels.||Air Quality|
|Pollution: Air Quality: Berlin oct 2021||A 2014 report commissioned by Berlin’s regional parliament found that 58% of traffic space was devoted to cars, even though only a third of journeys on Berlin streets (and only 17% within the S-Bahn ring) were made by car. Only 3% was set aside for bicycles, which accounted for 15% of journeys (18% within the ring).||Air Quality|
|Pollution: Air Quality Report Jul 2019||The Government’s Clean Air Strategy (CAS) committed to the setting of a new ambitious, long term target to reduce the population’s exposure to PM2.5 and also committed to reducing the number of people affected by levels of PM2.5 that exceed WHO guidelines.||Air Quality|
For public transport to become a force in dealing with urban congestion, carbon reduction, improving air quality and to be an attractive alternative to the car, it must be built quickly and operate affordably.
In 1927 and refined in 1992 and 2002.
There is only one Rule.
It allows people to speak as individuals, and to express views that may not be those of their organizations, and therefore it encourages free discussion. People usually feel more relaxed if they don't have to worry about their reputation or the implications if they are publicly quoted.
Chatham House can take disciplinary action against one of its members who breaks the Rule. Not all organizations that use the Rule have sanctions. The Rule then depends for its success on being seen as morally binding.
It is widely used by local government and commercial organizations as well as research organizations
It is important to think about the spirit of the Rule. For example, sometimes speakers need to be named when publicizing the meeting. The Rule is more about the dissemination of the information after the event - nothing should be done to identify, either explicitly or implicitly, who said what.
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